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The British Secretary of State for War, Lord Kitchener, appointed General Sir Ian Hamilton to command the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force that was to carry out the mission. On both beaches the Turkish defenders were in a position to inflict appalling casualties on the landing infantry. Morale remained good throughout the war largely because soldiers never had to spend much time actually fighting in the front lines. Nor is it enough to claim that the average British soldier had a greater sense of duty or patriotism than his French or Russian counterparts; British memoirs reflect the fact that most soldiers had no use for patriotic ideals. However, an early proposal to use Greek troops to invade the Gallipoli peninsula was vetoed by Russia as its south slavic allies would feel threatened by an expansion of Greek power and influence. Soldiers who spent too much time in the line almost invariably broke down; no amount of patriotism or camaraderie could prevent a soldier from cracking if he spent a month in the front lines of the Ypres salient. Initially, the attack was to be made by the Royal Navy alone, with only token forces from the army being required for routine occupation tasks. After the failure of the naval attacks, it was decided that ground forces were necessary to eliminate the Turkish mobile artillery. At W Beach the Lancashire Fusiliers also landed in open boats on a small beach overlooked by dunes and obstructed with barbed wire. Soon afterwards three battleships were sunk (HMS Ocean and HMS Irresistible and the French Bouvet), while the battlecruiser HMS Inflexible and the French battleships Suffren and Gaulois were badly damaged. The results of this decision to turn back are unclear if the British had pushed forward with the naval attack, as Churchill suggested, then Gallipoli might not have been so great a defeat. The White Sea in the north and the Sea of Okhotsk in the Far East were distant from the Eastern Front and often icebound. He reasoned that the Royal Navy had a large number of obsolete battleships which could not be used against the German High Seas Fleet in the North Sea, but which might well be made useful in another theatre. The High Command of the British army must be given credit for an intelligent policy of rotation that kept soldiers in fighting condition for a much longer period of time than might otherwise have been possible. These losses prompted the Allies to cease any further attempts to force the straits by naval power alone. Small unit loyalty certainly played a large role, but this loyalty would not help a soldier through after he had seen all of his friends killed. Also, the Allies hoped that an attack on the Ottomans would draw Bulgaria and Greece into the war on the Allied side. Fortunately, most soldiers did not have to spend more than two or three days at a time in an active sector of the front; British memoirs reflect this fact. The main landings were made at V Beach, beneath the old SeddСЊlbahir fortress, and at W Beach, a short distance to the west on the other side of the Helles headland. As Winter has shown, most soldiers were so bored that there would have been plenty of time for them to reflect on why they were there in the trenches. However almost every ship was damaged by sea mines which were laid along the Asian shore by the Turkish minelayer Nusrat. At V Beach the covering force from the Royal Munster Fusiliers and Royal Hampshires was landed from a converted collier, SS River Clyde, which was run aground beneath the fortress so that the troops could disembark directly via ramps to the shore. The ANZACs were to land north of Gaba Tepe on the Aegean coast from where they could advance across the peninsula and prevent retreat from or reinforcement of Kilitbahir. On the other hand, it is possible that they would simply have trapped themselves in the Sea of Marmara, with force insufficient to take Constantinople and a minefield between themselves and the Mediterranean Sea. As Winter has said, the real enemy was not German bullets or artillery, but "the weather and the side-effects of living rough," such as lice and trench foot. leather trench coat womens trench coat black trench coat trench coat men long trench coats wool trench coat trench coats women trench coat beige white trench coat trench jacket the trench trenchcoats womens trench coats trench coat classic trench life red trench coat life in the trenches brown trench coat short trench coat trench coat trench coats trenchcoat long trench trench beige trench court long trench coat trench coat women parka mens trench coat ladies trench coat

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